Indices and tables
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Ramallah - Engineers Association ,
Association issued a study entitled "The Reality of the engineering work in Palestine - Opportunities and Challenges " where the aim of this study to the sensor employment opportunities for engineers locally and monitor income rates prevailing in the local market among the engineers dealt with this study, the problem of unemployment and low rates of income from several perspectives and Zoya in order to give a more detailed picture about the causes of the problem and to participate in the development of possible solutions to reduce these problems faced by the Palestinian engineers .
The statistics show Engineers Association that the census engineers in all disciplines in the West Bank only has exceeded 17,000 engineer and architect with beginnings in 2014 while the number of associate members of the union during the year 2013 nearly 1650 an engineer and an engineer , which means that the population of engineers is growing at a rate of 10% which poses a challenge to the future represented in the limited job opportunities and higher rates of competition on these opportunities, thereby increasing unemployment rates and reflect negatively on the rates of income as a result of the high competition for jobs .
Studies show a significant increase in the number of graduates over the past three decades , this was the rise in the number of graduates because of the increasing number of universities, colleges and local diversity programs and specializations offered by , and the growing number of students enrolled in these institutions . In contrast , the trend rates of absorption of graduates was low and stable in the productive and service sectors . This has led to high unemployment among university graduates and intermediate institutes , where the unemployment rate in the various disciplines of engineering 26% of the total participants in the study as the study shows that the largest proportion of the unemployed are recent graduates .
And participated in this study of 700 engineers and engineer of all disciplines and from all geographic distributions in North Mahazat At different levels of experience .
The survey results show a significant increase in the proportion of engineers to engineers , compared with previous years where the percentage of engineers in the study 27 %, which is high compared with the year 2007, when the percentage of engineers 20% while popping increase significantly since 2011 and show these indicators on the tendency toward higher among female engineering profession , reflecting the positive change in the social outlook of the engineering profession from the perspective of gender after it was masculine in this function mostly in the foot .
And the study shows the high number of engineers the next two to study the masters , compared with past years, where the percentage of engineers involved in the study of the master's degree 12 %, which is higher than those that emerged from the study in 2012 and is due to go to study master to try to engineers through their education Advanced obtain a job suitable while still demand for postgraduate diploma programs, much less and up to 2 % due to the lack of market confidence the local extent of the feasibility of postgraduate diploma programs, while the demand for doctoral programs is low also because of the length of time required by the process of collecting a Ph.D. Add limited to the use of the labor market with this feature , where job opportunities are limited obtaining a doctorate degree in the academic domain .
In the framework of monitoring unemployment rates compared to previous years has been the study showed a significant rise in the unemployment rate now compared with the findings of the study in 2012 , where the percentage of unemployment in these currently 26 %, and when comparing this ratio with the unemployment rate during the year 2012 , which amounted to 24% is observed high Psonbh 2 % , where due to difficult economic conditions and stop many donor projects in addition to the reflection of the global crisis and regional problems on the Palestinian situation is in parallel with the increasing unregulated in the number of graduates . study also showed that the unemployment rate among engineers males of the sample reaches 22% while constitute more than three times the percentage of females out of the total sample is due to social and cultural reasons in addition to a lack of capacity development and skills of engineers and limited job opportunities . The study found high rates of unemployment among graduates in 2012 and 2013 to reach 46 %, while the figure was down to the graduates of 2010 and 2011 to reach 35% while decreasing this ratio is significantly among the graduates of the years 2005 to 2009 , and show this ratio over exacerbate the problem of unemployment among new graduates , particularly for the last five years and this demonstrates that there is increasing disorganized in the number of graduates in these years . Looking at the unemployment rates in the engineering disciplines in general ( people Engineering ) notes the existence of a significant rise in the rate of unemployment among engineers of Chemical while constitute the unemployment rate in the disciplines of electrical and mechanical engineering accounted for 31.5 % , a high number when compared to the unemployment rate in Palestine in year , while only less than this figure much in the disciplines of civil engineering , despite the availability of employment opportunities due to the growing unregulated in the number of graduates , as unemployment goes down significantly majoring in architecture which enhances the need to adjust the number of graduates in each discipline .
When talking about unemployment rates in the sub-disciplines study showed the presence of high high unemployment rates in the disciplines of engineering and medical instruments Mechatronics and communications for up to 50% due to lack of market demand for large numbers of graduates in these disciplines and Bnzera to the fact that Palestine is not classified as an industrially-produced as less this ratio when talking about the specialties of electronics, power and control of up to 33.5 % at the time still when this ratio is high, and less than the unemployment rate in the specialized computer networks and automation electric up rate to 18 % , so it should also be linked to the number of graduates in these disciplines with market needs domestic and foreign . As in the disciplines of architecture rising unemployment rate in the specialty of interior design significantly as a result of the inability of the engineering offices to accommodate the large numbers of graduates, while less than the unemployment rate in the specialty engineering to maintain the buildings , restoration and carrying a very large degree in architecture general terms gives an indication on that the general trend towards disciplines will give graduates the opportunity to compete for the top jobs available due to the nature and size of the projects implemented in Palestine in this sector . With regard to civil engineering study concluded that engineers majoring in Surveying engineering and water and the environment does not suffer from high unemployment and the reason for this is due to the fact that the number of graduates in these disciplines are limited and can be absorbed through the local labor market , while this percentage will increase in the specialty of civil engineering in Engineering and construction and buildings due to opine graduates in these disciplines . And is a specialty engineering materials within the engineering mechanics more programs that suffer from high unemployment where the reason for this is to turn this jurisdiction to the mechanical side in the absence of interest in the local market in the field of materials from the perspective of a mechanic while increasing the importance of this specialty within the disciplines civil Engineering .
And does not reflect the high rates of unemployment among graduates of local universities inadequacy of efficiency and specialties of graduates with the needs of the labor market in the West Bank and Gaza and by , but also reflects the inability of the Palestinian economy on the recruitment and use of the human element coach and qualified in both the public and private sectors as the best.
The study also found that there are significantly higher numbers of engineers who move to work from their place of residence to other provinces and in particular Ramallah by up to 30% of the total participants in the study, while the percentage of engineers who move to work abroad, 11 %, which is increasingly compared with previous studies where due to the increasing number of graduates when compared to job opportunities available locally.
And given periods Lzimaih that drained in the search for jobs has been shown that 78 % of those employed have obtained jobs within a year at most , while 13 % of them Oamado more than a year and less than two years in search of jobs as 9% of them have exceeded the period of their search for jobs two years , and reflect these ratios fact high competition on the career opportunities limited in the local labor market as 22% of the respondents who are currently employed may Oamado more than two years , but that part of them Oamado nearly three years as they are registered on the lists unemployed , which shows the depth of the problem and the prevalence of unemployment among new graduates mainly .
The study points to a disparity in the rates of income also showed no obligation operators in the minimum wage and approved by the Order of Engineers , on the other hand the study shows increased positive in the value of wages , where 38% of the study sample increased wages for 660 Jordanian dinars , at the level of the last 22% of the study sample did not exceed their monthly salary of 450 Jordanian dinars, the study shows that the majority of these are paid salaries or less are graduates of the years 2011.2012 , and 2013 .
The study points to a significant increase in the number of graduates majoring in electrical engineering , while this increase is not in line with the requirements of the local market where the growing market need of engineers majoring in electrical engineering is very limited thus exacerbating unemployment rates and increases in the disciplines of engineering electricity.
And the study shows a significant increase in the preparation of engineers who move to work in other provinces and in particular Ramallah by up to 30% of the total participants in the study, while the percentage of engineers who move to work abroad, 11 %, which is increasingly compared with previous studies where due to the increasing number of graduates when compared to the employment opportunities available locally.
The study shows diverse sectors of the work of engineers , where he works 32 % of whom are in the labor sector engineering consultant and construction sector while classified government sector as the third highest sector of engineering by 13 %, followed by NGO Sector 8% compared to the study earlier noticed an increase in the percentage of workers in NGO Sector 2% , due to the availability of many development projects carried out within a package of international projects submitted to Palestine , and looking at the commercial and industrial sector in Palestine, noted the low percentage of workers in them due to the lack of acceptance of the labor market and factory owners and businesses to the feasibility of operating engineers in this factories and companies and their ability to improve productivity and economic conditions and the quality of their projects ........
Detailed study will be published within two days and will be circulated to all institutions and ministries , universities and all stakeholders and the decision-making process , including recommendations to address this problem and its dimensions
NOTE: The study included more details about the accuracy of unemployment and income rates according to gender , subspecialty , years of experience , geographic distribution ( provinces )
Even in 1996 it was reported that over half of the world’s population lived within 60 km of the shoreline (Turner et al, 1996). This trend has continued with an increase in the population in question. Small Island Developing States (SIDS), such as those in the Caribbean, tend to have much of their population live along coasts. This fact makes them very vulnerable to the effects of climate change, such as sea level rise. It is therefore important for SIDS to take steps to ensure sustainable development, and to prepare to adapt to and mitigate any threat (such as sea level rise) which may be potentially be detrimental to their socioeconomic prosperity (IPCC, 2007a; 2007b).
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Author: Dr.Ghadi Younis